FSHN 120 Exam 3 2015
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Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodinean essential nutrient in the diet. It may result in a goitersometimes as an endemic goiter as well as cretinism due to untreated congenital hypothyroidismwhich results in developmental major dietary source of iodine in the typical american diet and other health problems.
Iodine deficiency is an important public health issue as it is a preventable cause of intellectual disability. Iodine is an essential dietary mineral ; the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine contain iodine.
In areas where there is little iodine in the diet, typically remote inland areas where no marine foods are eaten, iodine deficiency is common. It is also common in mountainous regions of the world where food is grown in iodine-poor soil.
Prevention includes adding small amounts of iodine to table salt, a product known as iodized salt. Iodine compounds have also been added to other foodstuffs, such as major dietary source of iodine in the typical american diet, water and milk, in areas of deficiency.
A low amount of thyroxine one of the two thyroid hormones in the blood, due to lack of dietary iodine to make it, gives rise to high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone TSHwhich stimulates the thyroid gland to increase many biochemical processes; the cellular growth and proliferation can result in the characteristic swelling or hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, or goiter. In mild iodine deficiency, levels of triiodiothyronine T 3 may be elevated in the presence of low levels of levothyroxine, as the body converts more of the levothyroxine to triiodothyronine as a major dietary source of iodine in the typical american diet.
Some such patients may have a goiter, without an elevated TSH. The introduction of iodized salt since the early s has eliminated this condition in many affluent countries; however, in AustraliaNew Zealandand several European countries, iodine deficiency is a significant public health problem. Public health initiatives to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease have resulted in lower discretionary salt use at major dietary source of iodine in the typical american diet table.
Additionally, there is a trend towards consuming more processed foods in western countries. If goiter is untreated for around five years, however, iodine supplementation major dietary source of iodine in the typical american diet thyroxine treatment may not reduce the size of the thyroid gland because the thyroid is permanently damaged. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of preventable mental handicaps worldwide, producing typical reductions in IQ of 10 to major dietary source of iodine in the typical american diet IQ points.
It has been speculated that deficiency of iodine and other micronutrients may be a possible factor in observed differences in IQ between ethnic groups: Cretinism is a condition associated with iodine deficiency and goiter, commonly characterised by mental deficiency, major dietary source of iodine in the typical american diet, squint, disorders of stance and gait and stunted growth due to hypothyroidism.
Paracelsus was the first to point out the relation between goitrous parents and their mentally disabled children. As a result of restricted diet, isolation, intermarriage, etc. The word cretin appeared in English in While reporting recent progress towards overcoming iodine-deficiency disorders worldwide, The Lancet noted: There is preliminary evidence that iodine deficiency enhances the sensitivity of breast tissue to estrogen.
Protective effects of iodine on breast cancer have been postulated from epidemiologic evidence and described in animal models. In areas where there is little iodine in the diet, typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates where no marine foods are eaten, iodine deficiency gives rise to hypothyroidismsymptoms of which are extreme fatiguegoitermental slowing, depression, weight gain, and low basal body temperatures.
Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardationa result which occurs primarily when babies or small children are rendered hypothyroidic by a lack of the element. The addition of iodine to table salt has largely eliminated this problem in the wealthier nations, but as of Marchiodine deficiency remained a serious public health problem in the developing world.
Iodine deficiency is also a problem in certain areas of Europe. In Germany it has been estimated to cause a billion dollars in health care costs per year.
Following is a list of potential risk factors that may lead to iodine deficiency: In the cells of these tissues, iodide enters directly by sodium-iodide symporter NIS. The diagnostic workup of a suspected iodine deficiency includes signs and symptoms as well as possible risk factors mentioned above. If a hour urine collection is not practical, a random urine iodine-to-creatinine ratio can alternatively be used. A general idea of whether a deficiency exists can be determined through a functional iodine test in the form of an iodine skin test.
In this test, the skin is painted with an iodine solution: However, no accepted norms exist on the expected time interval for the patch to disappear, and in persons with dark skin color the disappeance of the patch may be difficult to assess. If a urine test is taken shortly after, the results may be altered due to the iodine absorbed previously in a skin test. Iodine deficiency is treated by ingestion of iodine salts, such as found in food supplements.
Mild cases may be treated by using iodized salt in daily food consumption, or drinking more milk, or eating egg yolks, and saltwater fish. However, too high iodine intake, for example due to overdosage of iodine supplements, can have toxic side effects. It can lead to hyperthyroidism and consequently high blood levels of thyroid hormones hyperthyroxinemia.
In case of extremely high single-dose iodine intake, typically a short-term suppression of thyroid function Wolff—Chaikoff effect occurs. In some cases, excessive iodine contributes to a risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases Hashimoto's thyroiditis  and Graves' disease .
Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have begun taking action, while Russia has not. Successful campaigns for the adoption of the use of iodized salt require education of salt producers and sellers and a communication campaign directed at the public. The cost of adding iodine to salt is negligible—"Only a few cents a ton. Iodine deficiency has largely been confined to the developing world for several generations, but reductions in salt consumption and changes in dairy processing practices eliminating the use of iodine-based disinfectants have led to increasing prevalence of the condition in Australia and New Zealand in recent years.
A proposal to mandate the use of iodized salt in most commercial breadmaking was adopted there in October, It is well known that micronutrient deficiencies change the development of intelligence and iodine is no exception.
Lacking in iodine during human development causes a fall, in average, of 12 IQ points in China. Weil have found in the U. Journalist Max Nisen has stated that, with this type of salt becoming popular, that "the aggregate effect has been extremely positive.
In iodine deficient or mildly iodine deficient areas in Europe, iodine deficiency is frequent during pregnancy despite the widespread use of iodised salt, posing risks to the neurodevelopment of foetuses. With iodine supplementation, goiters caused by iodine deficiency decrease in size in very young children and pregnant women. Generally, however, long-standing goiters caused by iodine deficiency respond with only small amounts of shrinkage after iodine supplementation, and patients are at risk for developing hyperthyroidism.
In view of large-scale epidemiological studies of iodine levels in populations, a method of capillary electrophoresis with UV detection of iodine has been proposed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Eastman; Michael Zimmermann 12 February American Academy of Pediatrics. Cancer Causes and Control review.
Murray 14 September Textbook of Natural Medicine. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia review. Health Implications of Deficiency". Smith 24 August Trace Minerals in Foods.
A Challenge to the Evolution of Terrestrial Life? Pearce; Sonia Ananthakrishnan 16 December Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine. Principles of Medical Physiology. Journal of Internal Medicine. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. Impact of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency: Retrieved July 23, Diseases of the endocrine system E00—E35— Hypoglycemia beta cell Hyperinsulinism G cell Zollinger—Ellison syndrome.
Iodine deficiency Cretinism Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Euthyroid sick syndrome. Hyperthyroxinemia Thyroid hormone resistance Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia Hashitoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis factitia Graves' disease. Endemic goitre Toxic nodular goitre Toxic multinodular goiter Thyroid nodule.
Primary Secondary Tertiary Osteitis fibrosa cystica. Cushing's syndrome Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome sex hormones: Polycystic ovary syndrome Premature ovarian failure testicular: Hypogonadism Delayed puberty Hypergonadism Precocious puberty Hypoandrogenism Hypoestrogenism Hyperandrogenism Hyperestrogenism Postorgasmic illness syndrome. Ascorbic acid Dehydroascorbic acid. Malnutrition or nutrition disorders E40—E68— Riboflavin deficiency B 3: Pellagra Niacin deficiency B 6: Pyridoxine deficiency B 7: Biotin deficiency B 9: Folate deficiency B Vitamin B 12 deficiency.
Vitamin E deficiency K: Childhood obesity Obesity hypoventilation syndrome Abdominal obesity.