US9506729B2 - Field mixable two-component liquid explosive - Google Patents
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Its name is commonly pronounced as "an-fo". ANFO has found wide use in coal miningquarrying buy kinepak liquid, metal miningand civil construction in applications where its low cost and ease of use may buy kinepak liquid the benefits of other explosives, such as water resistance, oxygen balance, higher detonation velocity, or performance in small-diameter columns. ANFO is also widely used in avalanche hazard mitigation.
The press and other media have used the term ANFO loosely and imprecisely in describing improvised explosive devices IEDsin cases of fertilizer bombs see Malicious use below. The use of ANFO originated in the s. In an ideal stoichiometrically balanced reaction, ANFO is composed of about In buy kinepak liquid, a slight excess of fuel oil is added, as underdosing results in reduced performance while overdosing merely results in more post-blast fumes.
In practical use, such conditions are impossible to attain, and blasts produce moderate amounts of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides NO x. The fuel component of ANFO is typically diesel, but kerosenecoal dust, racing fuel, or even molasses have been used instead. Finely powdered aluminium buy kinepak liquid the mixture will sensitise it to detonate more readily. ANFO is classified as a blasting agent, meaning that it decomposes through detonation rather than deflagration at a velocity higher than the speed of sound in the material but can't be detonated with a No.
ANFO is a tertiary explosivemeaning that it cannot be set off by the small quantity of primary explosive in a typical blasting cap. A larger quantity of secondary explosive, known as a primer or a boostermust be used.
In the mining industry, the term ANFO specifically describes a mixture of solid ammonium nitrate prills and diesel fuel. Other explosives based on the ANFO chemistry exist; the most commonly used are emulsions. They differ from ANFO in the physical form the reactants take. The most notable properties of emulsions are water resistance and higher bulk density. Their lower density is due to the presence of a small spherical air pocket within each prill: These voids are necessary to sensitize ANFO: In surface mining applications, it is typically augured into boreholes by dedicated trucks that mix the AN and FO components immediately before the product is dispensed.
In underground mining applications, ANFO is typically blow-loaded. AN is highly hygroscopicreadily absorbing water from air. In humid environments, absorbed water interferes with its explosive function.
When used in wet mining conditions, considerable effort must be taken to remove standing water and install a liner in the borehole; it is generally more productive to instead use a water-resistant buy kinepak liquid such as emulsion.
In most jurisdictions, ammonium nitrate need not be classified as an explosive for transport purposes; it is merely an oxidizer. Mines typically prepare ANFO on-site using the same diesel fuel that powers their vehicles. While many fuels can theoretically be used, the low volatility and cost of diesel make it ideal. ANFO under most conditions is blasting cap —insensitive, so it is classified as a blasting agent  and not a high explosive. Ammonium nitrate is widely used as a fertilizer in the agricultural industry.
It is also found in instant buy kinepak liquid packs. In many countries, its purchase and use are restricted to buyers who have obtained the proper license. In the movie The Dark Knight buy kinepak liquid Christopher NolanThe Joker uses the compound to hold two ferries hostage, and tries to make the people on each ferry detonate the other buy kinepak liquid. In Stephen King 's novel Desperationnovelist Johnny Marinville prevents the rest of the group from going forward, and proceeds to blow up the Pit and the ini inside with the ANFO, sacrificing himself.
Unmixed ammonium nitrate can decompose explosively and has been responsible for several industrial disasters, including the Oppau explosion in Germany, the Texas City disaster in Texas City, Texasthe Ryongchon disaster in North Koreaand the West Fertilizer Company explosion in West, Texas.
Five containers of kilos each were used to blow up buy kinepak liquid Tax Office building in Bastia on 28 February The Shijiazhuang bombings Chinese: A total of people were killed, and 38 others injured when, within a short time, several ANFO bombs exploded near four apartment buildings. Improvised bombs made with agricultural-grade AN are less sensitive and less efficient than buy kinepak liquid explosive-grade variety.
The material was believed to be linked to attacks previously carried out by the "Revolutionary Struggle" terrorist group. In JanuaryPresident Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan also issued a decree banning the use, production, storage, purchase, or sale of ammonium nitrate, after an buy kinepak liquid showed militants in the Taliban insurgency had used the substance in bomb attacks.
The relative effectiveness factor of ANNM varies depending on the mix, but does not exceed 1. ANNM usually contains a Sometimes, more AN is added to reduce liquidity and make it easier to store and handle, as well as providing an oxygen-balanced mix. The balanced equation is as follows:. Depending on the detonation impetus for example a 6 versus a 10 detonatorthe products of the detonation can be decidedly unstoichiometric.
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October Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Science of Industrial Explosives. Retrieved 3 March The New York Times. Pothole Blasting for Wildlife. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Madison, Buy kinepak liquid Principles and Practices of Modern Coal Mining. Blasting-grade AN prills are typically between 0. Retrieved March 3, A Brief History of the Car Bomb. Retrieved 12 August Archived from the original on 7 June Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 16 April Retrieved from " https: CS1 Chinese-language sources zh CS1 Norwegian-language sources no Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references Use dmy dates buy kinepak liquid April All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles needing additional references from October Views Read Edit View history.