## Verilog code for 8 bit ripple carry adder schematic

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Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. Print , seem to not work beyond 32 bit numbers. How can I overcome these limitations and print all possible 64 bit unsigned integers as decimal numbers?

Thus, I need to print that bit number as Decimal on Serial port only. To do this I was thinking of dividing the number in two blocks of 32 bit each with a bitwise operation. Then send each number in sequence on the Serial port, but obviously the resulting number is different from the original bit number. So, is there an algorithm that given a number as input, the returned result are two numbers that are the breakdown of the previous binary number in MSBs and LSBs?

How do I print a 64 bit number in decimal given 32 bit integer limitations on formatted decimal output? As you can see I have not yet found the right solution. For higher numbers the formula should not work correctly, but for some reason I'm still trying to figure out why when I send the result on the Serial it returns the right number even with the highest number [].

This solution is not very elegant, but at least works well for my purpose. If desired, it can be generalized to be used with all types of integers depends on your Arduino board microcontroller type. Since it seems to be the only complete solution to solve this kind of problem that I was able to find on the web then, if anyone finds any bugs or like to improve it, feel free to reply to or edit this post.

The biggest problem lies in the length of the decimal number. If the length of the number e. Conversely as showed in the code , if the number is even we need to put the if statement code with the LSBval and then use the result. If you use another int type 32 bit, 16 bit, etc. In this case the numbers of zeros of the divider and module before the if statement corresponds to the half the length of the largest number that fit the uint64 type in Decimal, then ten zeroes.

Instead those contained inside the if statement have two zeros in less eight zeroes. Obviously I have not tested the code with all the numbers involved, but I hope this work with all! Please clarify your specific problem or add additional details to highlight exactly what you need. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question.

If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center , please edit the question. The answer to the question really depends on what is receiving the data being sent by the Serial class. If you are trying to pass it to another program who will reassemble two or more messages into a 64bit number, that's a different problem. But if it's for a human to read, from the arduino forums comes this example sketch on how to print a long long.

EDIT The observation in the comments that the modulus of 1,,, a billion can be used instead of 1,, a million to allow a larger range is correct. But since an unsigned 64 bit number can represent up to , that is still more than 18 times a billion squared. So even a modulus of a billion isn't perfect, After dividing by a billion, the result will not fit into a 32 bit integer.

A billion billion can fit into a 60 bit number. Three ways it can be done, geared more to look how, rather than optimized The third one is probably good enough to be a real answer. Email Sign Up or sign in with Google. How do I output a 64bit number on Arduino if its libraries have 32 bit restrictions?

A bit of background: For example, I use an unsigned 8-bit number as follows: Thus I try to split the number in two parts with a bitwise mask: As properly guessed by Infixed I'm trying to: And up to now I found: Check the accepted answer for more solutions that do not relies on Streaming. This applies to all types of integers. You are very confused. Bits are just bits. Send any of them in any order you like, as long as the guy on the other side knows, and he can reassemble them.

A serial port by definition only sends one bit at a time, though most including the Arduino's have an 8-bit shift register so that you can send and receive 8 bits in software. But again, which ones you send and in which order are entirely up to you.

Are you saying that Serial. If that is your problem, then splitting at a bit boundaries is not going to help. That's equivalent to dividing and getting remainders of a power of 2. To get decimal you need to think about powers of You may even be better off breaking your number into single digits and printing them one at a time. I think he's looking for something like this: Please give me your solution and i tell you if is what i'm searching for.

If it's human eyes reading, then you apparently are looking to actually print a decimal number. None of these have been tried on an actual Arduino. Thanks man, I'm trying Good solution but this need a fix because i'm using streaming. Another problem is that it split the number in the wrong position.

It can be outputted directly at least with streaming. So i can use this as a solution. I do not have an arduino. The character buffer is used with the sprintf call to give you the 'leading zero' characters on the string for the remainder part. So modulus 10 billion. MS part is , LS remainder is , which can fit in 32 bits. But recall there will be numbers where the remainder is greater than For instance, try your program with LL and see how it works. You may want to consider thinking smaller instead of larger.

Review the comment made by chux on the question , and think about doing things mod Merging two 4 bit numbers to an 8 bit number can be done by bitshifting: Tommy Andersen 5, 1 18 Stack Overflow for Teams is Now Available. Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled.