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The mercury-in-glass or mercury thermometer was invented by physicist Daniel Gabriel Sell liquid mercury in Amsterdam It consists of a bulb containing mercury attached to a glass tube of narrow sell liquid mercury the volume of mercury in the tube is much less than the volume of the bulb.
The volume of mercury changes sell liquid mercury with temperature; the small change in volume drives the narrow mercury column sell liquid mercury relatively long way up the tube. The space above the mercury may be filled with nitrogen or it may be at less than atmospheric pressurea partial vacuum.
In principle, thermometers made of different material e. The application of mercury and Fahrenheit scale for liquid-in-glass thermometers ushered in a new era of accuracy and precision in thermometry. The thermometer was used by the originators of the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. Anders Celsiusa Swedish scientist, devised the Celsius scale, which was described in his publication The origin of the Celsius temperature scale in Celsius used two fixed points in his scale: This wasn't a new idea, since Isaac Newton was already working on something similar.
The distinction of Celsius was to use the condition of melting and not that of freezing. The experiments for reaching a good calibration of his thermometer lasted for 2 winters. By performing the same experiment over and over again, he discovered that ice always melted at the same calibration mark on the thermometer. He found a sell liquid mercury fixed point in the calibration of boiling water to water vapour when this is done to high precision, sell liquid mercury variation will be seen with atmospheric pressure; Celsius noted this.
At the moment that he removed the thermometer from the vapour, the mercury level sell liquid mercury slightly. This was related to the rapid cooling and contraction of the glass. When Celsius decided to use his own temperature scale, he sell liquid mercury defined his scale "upside-down", i. These points sell liquid mercury adequate for approximate calibration but both vary with atmospheric pressure. Nowadays, the triple point of water is used instead of the freezing point the triple point occurs at Before the discovery of the true thermodynamic temperature, the thermometer defined the temperature; thermometers made with different materials would define different temperature scales a coloured alcohol thermometer would give a slightly different reading than a mercury thermometer at, say half-scale.
In practice, several materials gave very similar temperatures to each other and, when discovered, to the thermodynamic temperature. One special kind of mercury-in-glass thermometer, called a maximum thermometer, works sell liquid mercury having a constriction in the neck close to the bulb. As the temperature sell liquid mercury, the mercury is pushed up through the constriction by the force of expansion.
When the temperature falls, the column of mercury breaks at the constriction and cannot return to the bulb, thus remaining stationary in the tube. The observer can then read the maximum temperature over the set period of time.
To reset the thermometer it must be swung sell liquid mercury. This design is used in the traditional type of medical thermometer. A maximum minimum thermometer, also known as Six's thermometeris a thermometer which registers the maximum and minimum temperatures reached over a period of time, typically 24 hours. The original design contains mercury, but solely as a way to indicate the position of a column of alcohol whose expansion indicates the temperature; it is not a sell liquid mercury operated by the expansion of mercury; mercury-free versions are available.
If the thermometer contains nitrogen, the gas may flow down into the column when the mercury solidifies and be trapped there when the temperature rises, making the thermometer unusable until returned to the factory for reconditioning. As of [update]many mercury-in-glass thermometers are used in meteorology ; however, they are becoming increasingly rare for other uses, as many countries banned them for medical use due to the toxicity of mercury.
Some manufacturers use galinstana liquid alloy of galliumindiumand tinas a replacement for mercury. The typical "fever thermometer" contains between 0. The disposal company supplied each pharmacy approximately 1, with a collection bin and covered the cost of disposal. The pharmaceutical distributor covered the logistical costs for the distribution of the thermometers.
The pharmacies accepted a refund of only 0. The supplier provided the thermometers at a reduced price. During the collection period, consumers could bring in sell liquid mercury mercury thermometer and buy an electronic thermometer for a subsidised price of 1 Euro. Between October and Januaryaboutelectronic thermometers were sold and about one million mercury thermometers together containing about 1 tonne of mercury were collected.
Even before the order was released, 50 hospitals have already banned mercury from their establishments. Among these fifty hospitals, the Philippine Heart Center was the first one to do so. The country was the first one to make a step to ban mercury from its health care system in Southeast Asia. Shops holding stocks of unsold thermometers had to withdraw them from sale; mercury thermometers purchased before this date could be used without legal implications. The purpose of these restrictions is to protect the environment and public health by decreasing the amount of mercury waste released.
In the United States, both the American Academy of Pediatrics  and the United States Environmental Protection Agency  recommend that alternative thermometers be used in the home. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Liquid-in-glass thermometer and Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology. Fahrenheit, a Pioneer of Exact Thermometry. Mercury and the Environment: Products that Contain Mercury. US Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on Does the Health Protection Agency website prevent harm from breakage of mercury thermometers?
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