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CryptoNote is an application layer protocol that powers several decentralized privacy-oriented digital currencies. To prevent sender identification, CryptoNote groups the sender's public key with several other keys more precisely, it groups the sender's output with several other's outputs , making it impossible to tell who actually sent the transaction.
Bitcoin and similar currencies use a public ledger to verify that each person sending funds actually has such funds in their account and have not sent it to another user previously, since CryptoNote currencies are anonymous, and verifies transactions using a traceable ring signature.
There are no hard-coded constants in CryptoNote code, each network limit such as maximum block size, or minimum fee amount is adjusted based on the historical data of the system.
Moreover, the difficulty and the maximum block size are automatically adjusted with each new block. The CryptoNote platform has been used in several cryptocurrencies, the CryptoNote Foundation encourages developers to clone the technology. Transaction confirmation time, total number of coins and proof-of-work logic are subject to be altered in forks.
Several attempts has been performed to alter core protocol: Boolberry adds address aliases and DigitalNote introduced private messaging. Bytecoin BCN , not to be confused Bitcoin BTC , was the first implementation of the CryptoNote protocol launched to the public on July 4th  , since launching, several improvements have been introduced including multisignature transactions  and several security updates. The Bytecoin blockchain contains some extra information not directly related to money transfers: Monero is currently the most well known of all the CryptoNote-based cryptocurrencies and has ongoing support from the community.
In September , Monero was attacked when someone exploited a flaw in CryptoNote that permitted the creation of two subchains that refused to recognize the validity of transactions on each other; CryptoNote released a patch which Monero implemented. Monero has also teamed up with academic cryptographers,  implemented an extensive aliasing system, OpenAlias ,  partially funded Privacy Solution for integrating I2P in Monero,  created an anonymous voting system, URS,  and implemented Electrum's mnemonic seeds.
In there were several CryptoNote-based fraudulent coin launches, which exploited CrytoNote's open source code and the anonymity it provides in transactions. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation and it was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained and large systems, with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights.
In , Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on C with Classes, the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrups experience in programming for his Ph.
New features in 2. According to Stroustrup, the name signifies the nature of the changes from C. This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December , when Mascitti was questioned informally in about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. Operating system — An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
All computer programs, excluding firmware, require a system to function. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer — from cellular phones, the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around MacOS by Apple Inc.
Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors, other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications.
A single-tasking system can run one program at a time. Multi-tasking may be characterized in preemptive and co-operative types, in preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, e. Solaris, Linux, cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem, a distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer.
The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing, distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a work in cooperation, they form a distributed system. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, and is common in large server warehouses, embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems.
They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy and they are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design, Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is a system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator.
Basic operating system features were developed in the s, such as resident monitor functions that could run different programs in succession to speed up processing.
Microsoft Windows — Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture.
Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in , Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. As of September , the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry.
It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers.
The latest version is Windows PE The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system. Unix-like — A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A Unix-like application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix command or shell, there is no standard for defining the term, and some difference of opinion is possible as to the degree to which a given operating system or application is Unix-like. Other parties frequently treat Unix as a genericized trademark, in , Wayne R. Gray sued to dispute the status of UNIX as a trademark, but lost his case, and lost again on appeal, with the court upholding the trademark and its ownership.
Unix-like systems started to appear in the late s and early s, many proprietary versions, such as Idris, UNOS, Coherent, and UniFlex, aimed to provide businesses with the functionality available to academic users of UNIX.
Various free, low-cost, and unrestricted substitutes for UNIX emerged in the s and s, including 4. Most commercial UNIX systems fall into this category, so do the BSD systems, which are descendants of work done at the University of California, Berkeley in the late s and early s. Some non-Unix-like operating systems provide a Unix-like compatibility layer, with degrees of Unix-like functionality. Subsystem for Unix-based Applications provides Unix-like functionality as a Windows NT subsystem, Windows Subsystem for Linux provides a Linux-compatible kernel interface developed by Microsoft and containing no Linux code, with Ubuntu user-mode binaries running on top of it.
MacOS — Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows. Releases were code named after big cats from the release up until OS X Beginning in with OS X The latest version of macOS is macOS A heavily modified version of Mac OS X Beginning with Mac OS X All versions of the system released since then run exclusively on bit Intel CPUs, the heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in Reviews were variable, with praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface.
In colloquial use, anonymous is used to describe situations where the persons name is unknown. Some writers have argued that namelessness, though correct, does not capture what is more centrally at stake in contexts of anonymity. The important idea here is that a person be non-identifiable, unreachable, Anonymity is seen as a technique, or a way of realizing, certain other values, such as privacy, or liberty.
An important example for anonymity being not only protected, but enforced by law is probably the vote in free elections, in many other situations, anonymity is traditionally accepted as natural. There are also situations in which a person might choose to withhold their identity.
Acts of charity have been performed anonymously when benefactors do not wish to be acknowledged, a person who feels threatened might attempt to mitigate that threat through anonymity. A witness to a crime might seek to avoid retribution, for example, criminals might proceed anonymously to conceal their participation in a crime. Anonymity may also be created unintentionally, through the loss of identifying information due to the passage of time or a destructive event, in certain situations, however, it may be illegal to remain anonymous.
The term anonymous message typically refers to a message that does not reveal its sender, in many countries, anonymous letters are protected by law and must be delivered as regular letters. In mathematics, in reference to an element, within a well-defined set. If it is not identifiable, then the element is said to be anonymous, sometimes it is desired that a person can establish a long-term relationship with some other entity, without necessarily disclosing personally identifying information to that entity.
In this case, it may be useful for the person to establish a unique identifier, called a pseudonym, examples of pseudonyms are pen names, nicknames, credit card numbers, student numbers, bank account numbers, etc. A pseudonym enables the other entity to link different messages from the person and, thereby. Pseudonyms are widely used in networks and other virtual communication. Software license — A software license is a legal instrument governing the use or redistribution of software.
Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain, most distributed software can be categorized according to its license type. Two common categories for software under copyright law, and therefore with licenses which grant the licensee specific rights, are proprietary software and free, unlicensed software outside the copyright protection is either public domain software or software which is non-distributed, non-licensed and handled as internal business trade secret.
Contrary to popular belief, distributed unlicensed software is copyright protected. Examples for this are unauthorized software leaks or software projects which are placed on public software repositories like GitHub without specified license. As voluntarily handing software into the domain is problematic in some international law domains, there are also licenses granting PD-like rights.
Therefore, the owner of a copy of software is legally entitled to use that copy of software. Hence, if the end-user of software is the owner of the respective copy, as many proprietary licenses only enumerate the rights that the user already has under 17 U.
Proprietary software licenses often proclaim to give software publishers more control over the way their software is used by keeping ownership of each copy of software with the software publisher. The form of the relationship if it is a lease or a purchase, for example UMG v.
Augusto or Vernor v. The ownership of goods, like software applications and video games, is challenged by licensed. The Swiss based company UsedSoft innovated the resale of business software and this feature of proprietary software licenses means that certain rights regarding the software are reserved by the software publisher.
Therefore, it is typical of EULAs to include terms which define the uses of the software, the most significant effect of this form of licensing is that, if ownership of the software remains with the software publisher, then the end-user must accept the software license. In other words, without acceptance of the license, the end-user may not use the software at all, one example of such a proprietary software license is the license for Microsoft Windows.