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A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, information gathering,  challenge, recreation,  or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers.
The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground. There is a longstanding controversy about the term's true meaning. In this controversy, the term hacker is reclaimed by computer programmers who argue that it refers simply to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks,  and that cracker is the more appropriate term for those who break into computers, whether computer criminal pirate storm gold bot script hats or computer security expert white hats.
In computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems. While including those who endeavor to strengthen such mechanisms, it is more often used by the mass media and popular culture to refer to those who seek access despite these security measures.
That is, the media portrays the 'hacker' as a villain. Nevertheless, parts pirate storm gold bot script the subculture see their aim in correcting security problems and use the word in a positive sense.
White hat is the name given to ethical computer hackers, pirate storm gold bot script utilize hacking in a helpful way. White hats are becoming a necessary part of the information security field. Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the context.
The subculture around such hackers is termed network hacker subculture, hacker scene, or computer underground. It initially developed in the context of phreaking during the s and the microcomputer BBS scene of the s. It is implicated with The Hacker Quarterly and the alt. Inan article in the August issue of Psychology Today with commentary by Philip Zimbardo used the term "hacker" in its title: It was an excerpt from a Stanford Bulletin Pirate storm gold bot script discussion on the addictive nature of computer use.
CLU is the software he uses for this. Byhacking in the sense of breaking computer security had already been in use as computer jargon,  but there was no public awareness about such activities. Hackers at play", with Pirate storm gold bot script photograph on the cover. Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking. House of Representatives on September 26,about the dangers of computer hacking, and six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year.
Use of the term hacker meaning computer criminal was also advanced by the title "Stalking the Wily Hacker", an article by Clifford Stoll in the May issue of the Communications of the ACM. Later that year, the release by Robert Tappan Morris, Jr.
The popularity of Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Eggpublished one year later, further entrenched the term in the public's consciousness. Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with whom they do not agree. Raymondauthor of The New Hacker's Dictionaryadvocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers.
Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and even try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as a wider hacker culture, a view that Raymond has harshly rejected. In contrast to Raymond, they usually reserve the term cracker for more malicious activity.
According to Ralph D. Clifford, a cracker or cracking is to "gain unauthorized access to a computer in order to commit another crime such as destroying information contained in that system". A white hat pirate storm gold bot script breaks security for non-malicious reasons, either to test their own security system, perform penetration tests or vulnerability assessments for a client - or while working for pirate storm gold bot script security company which makes security software.
The term is generally synonymous with ethical hackerand the EC-Council,  among others, have developed certifications, courseware, classes, and online training covering the diverse arena of ethical hacking. A "black hat" hacker is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain" Moore, A grey hat hacker lies between a black hat and a white hat hacker. A grey hat hacker may surf the Internet and hack into a computer system for the sole purpose of notifying the administrator that their system has a security defect, for example.
They may then offer to correct the defect for a fee. Even though grey hat hackers may not necessarily perform hacking for their personal gain, unauthorized access to a system can be considered illegal and unethical. A social status among hackers, elite is used to describe the most skilled.
Newly discovered exploits circulate among these hackers. Elite groups such as Masters of Deception conferred a kind of credibility on their members. A script kiddie also known as a skid or skiddie is an unskilled hacker who breaks into computer systems by using automated tools written by others usually by other black hat hackershence the term script i. A neophyte " newbie ", or "noob" is someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology and hacking.
A blue hat hacker is someone outside computer security consulting firms who is used to bug-test a system pirate storm gold bot script to its launch, looking for exploits so they can be closed. Microsoft also uses the term BlueHat to represent a series of security briefing events. A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to publicize a social, ideological, religious or political message. Hacktivism can be divided into two main groups:.
Intelligence agencies and cyberwarfare operatives of nation states. Groups of hackers that carry out organized criminal activities for profit. In order to do so, there pirate storm gold bot script several recurring tools of pirate storm gold bot script trade and techniques used by computer criminals and security experts.
A security exploit is a prepared application that takes advantage of a known weakness. These are very common in Web site and Web domain hacking.
The computer underground  has produced its own specialized slang, such as speak. Its members often advocate freedom of information, strongly opposing the principles of copyright, as well as the rights of free speech and privacy. Some consider illegal cracking ethically justified for these goals; a common form is website defacement.
The computer underground is frequently compared to the Wild West. The computer underground is supported by regular real-world gatherings called hacker conventions or "hacker cons". Hacker groups became popular in the early s, providing access to hacking information and resources and a place to learn from other members. Computer bulletin board systems BBSssuch as the Utopias, provided platforms for information-sharing via dial-up modem. Hackers could also gain credibility by being affiliated with elite groups.
Maximum imprisonment is one year or a fine of the fourth category. The maximum imprisonment or fine for violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act depends on the pirate storm gold bot script of the violation and the offender's history of violations under the Act. The most notable hacker-oriented print publications are PhrackHakin9 and While the information contained in hacker magazines and ezines was often outdated by the time they were published, they enhanced their contributors' reputations by documenting their successes.
Hackers often show an interest in fictional cyberpunk and cyberculture literature and pirate storm gold bot script. The adoption of fictional pseudonyms symbols, values and metaphors from these pirate storm gold bot script is very common.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Hacker culture. Timeline of computer security hacker history. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by pirate storm gold bot script citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of computer criminals. Hacker conference and Hacker group. List of fictional hackers. Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 2 November Where did it begin and how did it grow?
Congressional Hearings and Pending Legislation," sp, p. Investigating High Technology Computer Crime. Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime 1st ed. University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved May pirate storm gold bot script, A security professional invited by Microsoft to find vulnerabilities in Windows. Microsoft meets the hackers. The New York Times. Applying An Ancient Chinese Lesson: Retrieved February 27, Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 12 August Retrieved September 25, Precedents in Social Media and Movements".
Pirate storm gold bot script from the original on September 26, Retrieved April 10, Corporate Hacking and Technology-Driven Crime: Social Dynamics and Implications. Teenager with autism on Leicestershire housing estate took classified information by fooling people into thinking he was FBI boss ".