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They are a B2B enterprise payments processor that digitizes their customers accounts receivable processes. The company was founded in , they started as a general-purpose payments engine for all aspects of digital payments. In PayStand made the decision to focus their efforts and expand on Business to Business payments. They offer technology that integrates with commercial customers sites, enabling the payer to remit payment in any digital form — i.
All reporting and transaction history is logged in the customers dashboard. Types of business entity — A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per commercial law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service, there are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries.
These include corporations, cooperatives, partnerships, sole traders, limited liability company, the specific rules vary by country and by state or province. NL, A type of mining, speculative, or research company with no right to call up the issue price of shares. In Australia companies can act as a trustee for a trust, pty.
Ltd In Canada entities can be incorporated under federal or provincial law. Privately held company — More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are unquoted company and unlisted company. Though less visible than their publicly traded counterparts, private companies have major importance in the worlds economy. In , the Forbes count of privately held U.
In the broadest sense, the private corporation refers to any business not owned by the state. This usage is found in former communist countries to differentiate from former state-owned enterprises.
In the United States, the privately held company is more often used to describe for-profit enterprises whose shares are not traded on the stock market. In countries with public trading markets, a privately held business is taken to mean one whose ownership shares or interests are not publicly traded. Most small businesses are privately held, Private companies may be called corporations, limited companies, limited liability companies, unlimited companies, or other names, depending on where and how they are organized and structured.
In the United States, but not generally in the United Kingdom, privately held companies generally have fewer or less comprehensive reporting requirements and obligations for transparency, via annual reports, etc.
For example, in the United States, unlike in Europe, in addition, private company executives may steer their ships without shareholder approval, allowing them to take significant action without delays.
There is a requirement for large proprietary companies, which are required to lodge Form H to the ASIC containing their financial report.
In the United States, private companies are held to different accounting auditing standards than are public companies, other companies, like Sageworks, provide aggregated data on privately held companies, segmented by industry code. Privately held companies also sometimes have restrictions on how many shareholders they may have, for example, the U.
Securities Exchange Act of , section 12, limits a privately held company, generally, to fewer than shareholders, and the U. Investment Company Act of , requires registration of investment companies that have more than holders, in Australia, section of the Corporations Act limits a privately held company to fifty non-employee shareholders. Private enterprises comprise the sector of an economy. United States — Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico.
The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15, years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. On July 4,, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in , after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in left the United States as the sole superpower.
It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. Entrepreneurship — What appears as a real opportunity ex ante might actually be a non-opportunity or one that cannot be actualized by entrepreneurs lacking the necessary business skills, financial or social capital. Traditionally, an entrepreneur has been defined as a person who starts, organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.
Rather than working as an employee, an entrepreneur runs a business and assumes all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea. The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a leader and innovator of new ideas.
They act as the manager and oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise, Entrepreneurship is the process by which an individual identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. Entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by innovation and risk-taking, for example, in the s, the field of social entrepreneurship has been identified, in which entrepreneurs combine business activities with humanitarian, environmental or community goals.
In the s, entrepreneurship can be studied in college or university as part of the disciplines of management or business administration, Entrepreneur, is a loanword from French. First used in , today the term entrepreneur implies qualities of leadership, initiative, economist Robert Reich has called team-building, leadership, and management ability essential qualities for the entrepreneur.
Historically the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work in the late 17th and early 18th centuries of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith, which was foundational to classical economics. In the 20th century, entrepreneurship was studied by Joseph Schumpeter in the s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises, the term entrepreneurship was coined around the s, while the loan from French of the word entrepreneur dates to the s.
According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation, thus, creative destruction is largely responsible for long-term economic growth. The idea that leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory. For Schumpeter, entrepreneurship resulted in new industries and in new combinations of currently existing inputs, Schumpeters initial example of this was the combination of a steam engine and then current wagon making technologies to produce the horseless carriage.
In this case the innovation, the car, was transformational and it did not immediately replace the horse-drawn carriage, but in time, incremental improvements reduced the cost and improved the technology, leading to the modern auto industry.
Despite Schumpeters early 20th-century contributions, traditional microeconomic theory did not formally consider the entrepreneur in its theoretical frameworks, in this treatment, the entrepreneur was an implied but unspecified actor, consistent with the concept of the entrepreneur being the agent of x-efficiency.
For Schumpeter, the entrepreneur did not bear risk, the capitalist did, Schumpeter was of the opinion that entrepreneurs shift the Production Possibility Curve to a higher level using innovations. Cantillon emphasized the willingness of the entrepreneur to assume risk and to deal with uncertainty, thus, he draws attention to the function of the entrepreneur, and distinguishes clearly between the function of the entrepreneur and the owner who provides the money.
Point of sale — The point of sale or point of purchase is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. It is also the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or after provision of a service. After receiving payment, the merchant may issue a receipt for the transaction, which is usually printed, to calculate the amount owed by a customer, the merchant may use any of a variety of aids available, such as weighing scales, barcode scanners, and cash registers.
To make a payment, payment terminals, touch screens, the point of sale is often referred to as the point of service because it is not just a point of sale but also a point of return or customer order. Additionally, current POS terminal software may include features to cater for different functionality, such as inventory management, CRM, financials. Businesses are increasingly adopting POS systems and one of the most obvious, selling prices are linked to the product code of an item when adding stock, so the cashier merely needs to scan this code to process a sale.
If there is a change, this can also be easily done through the inventory window. Other advantages include ability to implement various types of discounts, a loyalty scheme for customers, retailers and marketers will often refer to the area around the checkout instead as the point of purchase when they are discussing it from the retailers perspective.
This is particularly the case when planning and designing the area as well as considering a marketing strategy. Nevertheless, it is the term POS system rather than retail management system that is in vogue among both end-users and vendors, early electronic cash registers were controlled with proprietary software and were limited in function and communication capability.
This system was the first commercial use of technology, peer-to-peer communications, local area network simultaneous backup. By mid, it was installed in Pathmark stores in New Jersey, one of the first microprocessor-controlled cash register systems was built by William Brobeck and Associates in , for McDonalds Restaurants. It used the Intel , an early microprocessor. By pressing the button, a second or third order could be worked on while the first transaction was in progress, when the customer was ready to pay, the button would calculate the bill, including sales tax for almost any jurisdiction in the United States.
This made it accurate for McDonalds and very convenient for the servers, up to eight devices were connected to one of two interconnected computers so that printed reports, prices, and taxes could be handled from any desired device by putting it into Manager Mode. In addition to the memory, accuracy was enhanced by having three copies of all important data with many numbers stored only as multiples of 3. Should one computer fail, the other could handle the entire store, in , Gene Mosher introduced the first graphical point of sale software featuring a touchscreen interface under the ViewTouch trademark on the bit Atari ST color computer.
It featured a color touchscreen widget-driven interface that allowed configuration of widgets representing menu items without low level programming, the ViewTouch point of sale software was first demonstrated in public at Fall Comdex,, in Las Vegas Nevada to large crowds visiting the Atari Computer booth.
Mobile payment — Mobile payment generally refer to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device.
Instead of paying cash, cheque, or credit cards. Although the concept of using non-coin-based currency systems has a long history, Mobile payment is being adopted all over the world in different ways.
The mobile payment market for goods and services, excluding contactless payments using near field communication, investment on mobile money services is expected to grow by These payment networks are used for micropayments.
Mobile payments are becoming a key instrument for PSPs and other participants, in order to achieve new growth opportunities. Online companies like PayPal, Amazon Payments, and Google Wallet also have mobile options and these systems can be integrated with directly or can be combined with operator and credit card payments through a unified mobile web payment platform. A simple mobile web payment system can include a credit card payment flow allowing a consumer to enter their card details to make purchases.
This process is familiar but any entry of details on a phone is known to reduce the success rate of payments. The consumer uses the mobile billing option during checkout at an e-commerce site—such as an online gaming site—to make a payment, after two-factor authentication involving a PIN and One-Time-Password, the consumers mobile account is charged for the purchase.
Convenience — No pre-registration and no new software is required. Easy — Its just another option during the checkout process, fast — Most transactions are completed in less than 10 seconds. The merchant involved is informed of the payment success and can release the paid for goods. A Multimedia Messaging Service can also deliver barcodes which can then be scanned for confirmation of payment by a merchant and this is used as an electronic ticket for access to cinemas and events or to collect hard goods.
Inhibiting factors of Premium SMS include, Poor reliability — transactional premium SMS payments can easily fail as messages get lost, slow speed — sending messages can be slow and it can take hours for a merchant to get receipt of payment.
Bitcoin — Bitcoin is both a cryptocurrency and an electronic payment system,3 invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin was introduced on 31 October to a mailing list. The identity of Nakamoto remains unknown, though many have claimed to know it, the system is peer-to-peer, and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary.
These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain, since the system works without a central repository or single administrator, the U. Treasury categorizes bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed, Bitcoin is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value.
Bitcoins are created as a reward in a competition in which users offer their computing power to verify and this activity is referred to as mining and successful miners are rewarded with transaction fees and newly created bitcoins. Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, products, when sending bitcoins, users can pay an optional transaction fee to the miners.
This may expedite the transaction being confirmed, as of February , over , merchants and vendors accept bitcoin as payment. The European Banking Authority and other sources have warned that bitcoin users are not protected by refund rights or chargebacks, the use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and media.
Criminal activities are focused on darknet markets and theft, though officials in countries such as the United States also recognize that bitcoin can provide legitimate financial services. The word bitcoin occurred in the paper that defined bitcoin published in