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Pharmaceutical packaging or drug packaging is the packages and the packaging processes images common plastic bottles use for liquid drugs medication pharmaceutical preparations. It involves all of the operations from production through distribution channels to the end consumer. Pharmaceutical packaging is highly regulated but with some variation in the details, depending on the country of origin or the region.
Several common factors can include: Packaging is often involved in dispensing, dosing, and use of the pharmaceutical product. Communication of proper use and cautionary labels are also regulated. Packaging is an integral part of pharmaceutical product. Pharmaceutical packaging can often be thought of by the segment in the distribution system being encountered and by the functions needed by the user of the package.
Packaging requirements are different. Bulk pharmaceuticals can be shipped to another pharmaceutical company for further processing, to a contract packager for forming unit packs, to international customers, etc. Bulk shipments might be in fiber drums with plastic linersbulk boxescorrugated boxes with liners, intermediate bulk containersand other shipping containers. Smaller bulk packs can be shipped to pharmacies, particularly compounding pharmacies. The liquids or powders can be measured and put into primary packages.
Shipments to medical professionals could be at hospitals, nursing homes, veterinarians, dentists, etc. These packaged pharmaceuticals are intended to be dispensed and administered by professionally trained and certified personnel. Drugs under prescription images common plastic bottles use for liquid drugs medication are sent to pharmacies in multi-packs of unit packs or in images common plastic bottles use for liquid drugs medication containing many hundreds of capsules.
Typically a pharmacist prepares the final form of the unit pack or places a lower count of capsules in a small bottle for the customer. In a pharmacy, pharmacists are available to answer questions and to ensure that proper documentation is provided. Internet pharmacies mail the prescribed drugs to the customer; boxes or mailing envelopes are used.
Child resistant packaging is often required on the unit packs; if requested, a pharmacist is allowed put drugs in a bottle with easy open features. Over-the-counter drugs are sold in drug stores, grocery stores, and diverse retail outlets. Usually the package needs to have all the usage information available.
Packages often need to have tamper resistant features and child-resistant packaging. Usually the packaging and labeling of dietary supplementshomeopathic drugs, and folk medicines are not regulated. Some producers voluntarily follow the regulations for over-the-counter drugs or regional Pharmacopoeias. The wide variety of pharmaceutical solids, liquids, and gasses are packaged in a wide variety of packages.
Some of the common primary packages are:. Formed solid unit doses of pharmaceuticals capsulessuppositoriestabletsetc. The primary component of images common plastic bottles use for liquid drugs medication blister pack is a cavity or pocket made from a thermoformed plastic. This usually has a backing of paperboard or a lidding seal of aluminum foil or plastic film.
Blister packs are useful for protecting drugs against external factors, such as humidity and contamination for extended periods of time. Blister packing machinery is readily available and is suited to validation processes. Bottles are commonly used for liquid pharmaceuticals as well as formed tablets and capsules. Glass is most common for liquids because it is inert and has excellent barrier properties.
Various types of plastic bottles are used both by drug producers as well as by pharmacists in a pharmacy. Prescription bottles have been around since the 19th century. Prescription bottles come in several different colors, the most common of which being orange or light brown due to its ability to prevent ultraviolet light from degrading the potentially photosensitive contents through photochemical reactionswhile still letting enough visible light through for the contents to be easily visible.
Other common colors include: Clear for compounds that don't degrade in lightblue, dark brown, green, and various opaque hues. Some mail order pharmacies are now offering timed dosing packets for medications.
They put a certain number of pills, as directed by your physician into a plastic package and print the date and time that the drugs are to be taken. It is used for people with multiple medications that are taken at different times of the day. Many pharmaceutical products are sensitive to heat or cold. Controlled distribution systems and sometimes cold chains images common plastic bottles use for liquid drugs medication required.
A mail order or online pharmacy usually ships orders by mail services or by small parcel carrier. The shipment is not temperature-controlled and it may sit in a mail box upon delivery.
Conditions can include high or low temperatures outside of the recommended storage conditions for certain products. Larger shipments are sent in insulated shipping containers with dry ice or gel packs. A digital Temperature data logger or a time temperature indicator is often enclosed to monitor the temperature inside the container for its entire shipment. Counterfeit drugs are a serious problem; people can be taking useless drugs or even very dangerous drugs without knowing it.
Custom package seals, authentication labels, hologramsand security printingcan be valued parts of an entire security system. Drug counterfeiters, however, often work with package counterfeiters, some of whom can be sophisticated. No packaging system is completely secure. Prescription drug packaging often comes with a drug label. The prescription label usually contains the this information: Along with the images common plastic bottles use for liquid drugs medication on the bottle, some pharmacies may provide a "patient information sheet".
All aspects of pharmaceutical production, including packaging, are tightly controlled and have regulatory requirements. Uniformity, cleanliness, sterility, and other requirements are needed to maintain Good Manufacturing Practices. Product safety management is vital. A complete Quality Management System must be in place. Validation involves collecting documentary evidence of all aspects of compliance.
With a large portion of pharmaceutical packaging being outsourced to contract packagersadditional demand is being placed on specialty areas, i.
A metered-dose inhaler MDI. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Two drug packages appear to be identical in normal light. Selective UV wavelength identifies counterfeit package on left. A prepared, disposable enema. In Yam, K L. Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology. Retrieved 24 June Society for Historical Archaeology.
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