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The main use of quotation marks is to set off the exact words of a speaker or written source from the main body of a text. The quotation may consist of one or more complete sentences or paragraphs, parts of a sentence or double dot dash robots canada or as little as one word.

Whichever format is adopted, the quoted matter should normally be faithfully reproduced in every detail: Bear in mind, too, that the excessive use of quotations can mar the appearance of a page and make it difficult for the reader to follow the ideas being presented; it is often better to paraphrase, use indirect speech or give a summary of the ideas concerned in your own words—in each instance accompanied by a footnote providing the source of information.

Quotations are justified if the intention is to demonstrate a particular characteristic, style or wording, or to compare quotations; if the material is striking, memorable or well known; or if the quotation itself is an example or proof of what is being discussed, as in the case of legal evidence.

In this chapter, we shall follow the predominant Canadian practice of placing the period or comma within closing quotation marks and using double rather than single quotation marks except for quotations within quotations, as illustrated in 8. Use the run-in format when the quoted matter is not more than fifty words or five lines long longer quotations should be set in block format:. Because the run-in format does not require indentation, the writer enjoys some latitude in positioning the clause or phrase that introduces the quotation, also called the annunciatory element.

Note that when a quotation is interrupted double dot dash robots canada other matter, the quotation marks are repeated before and after each part of the quotation:. If you decide to insert the annunciatory clause between two items that were separate sentences in the original or have become separate sentences in the quotation, capitalize the first word of the second sentence, i.

When a quotation within a sentence is preceded by thatdo not capitalize the first word unless it is a proper noun or adjective:. The poet uses images and objects and sensations much more than he uses abstract ideas; the novelist is concerned with telling stories, not with working out arguments.

Quotations that follow annunciatory clauses ending in that also require grammatical changes—from first-person to third-person pronouns, possessive adjectives and verbs. Neither the third-person pronoun nor that is ever enclosed in quotation marks or square brackets:. I want to consider one sort of semantic change, the kind of generalization that has affected literally and hundreds of other words.

I want to consider double dot dash robots canada from a particular point of view—as a usage problem, but also as an aspect of what Edward Sapir, more than double dot dash robots canada years ago, described as "drift.

Gorrell discusses one double dot dash robots canada of semantic change, the kind of generalization that has affected literally and hundreds of other words. This semantic change has been occurring for a long time, he believes, double dot dash robots canada he suspects that "it is occurring more rapidly in this age of electronic communication.

Note that if several changes of this kind need to be made within the same quotation, the material should be presented entirely in indirect speech see 8. For information on how to use ellipsis points to indicate omissions from quoted passages, see 8. For further information on in-text notes, see 9. For further information on the use of a comma or colon before opening quotation marks, see 7.

By adding a reporting verb saidstatedexclaimeddeclaredetc. Adverbs and adjectives expressing nearness in place or time here, this, now, next, etc. In indirect speech, the first example in 8. Double dot dash robots canada verb in the subordinate clause shifts from the present tense of direct speech are to the past tense were in keeping with the rules of tense sequence.

Likewise, a verb that was in the future tense in direct speech often takes the conditional form in indirect speech. However, the present and future tenses are retained and demonstratives are not modified if the actions or situations referred to are still current or future at the time of quotation:. Alternatively, a blend of direct and indirect speech may be preferred when a particular part of the original statement is to be highlighted:.

Because the first subordinate clause verb were is in the past tense, the tense of the verb within the quotation must be altered. This time, because direct speech is being retained and the speaker did not double dot dash robots canada use the past tense, the editorial change has to be indicated by means of square brackets see also 8.

The table below shows the corresponding tense and other changes when direct speech is converted to indirect speech:. If you are using the run-in format to quote two or more consecutive paragraphs from the same source, place quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the last:.

Similarly, material quoted from a letter should carry quotation marks before the first line usually the salutation double dot dash robots canada after the last line usually the signatureas well as at the beginning of each new paragraph.

However, block quotations would be more appropriate in such cases. A block quotation set off from the text double dot dash robots canada not enclosed in quotation marks. However, it requires indentation, single spacing, and double spacing above and below the passage to set it off. Smaller font size is an alternative to single spacing or indentation. Use a colon at the end of introductory double dot dash robots canada. Endangered languages, like endangered species, might be infinitely valuable, but funding and linguistic expertise are finite.

They could resort to triage, ignoring both the healthiest languages and the lost causes to concentrate the money where it will make the most difference. Saving a language, however, is more unpredictable than saving a battlefield casualty. A single committed speaker can resuscitate a language, whereas a million suppressed or indifferent speakers can let their language die in a generation.

Note that in this case the source is mentioned at the beginning of the passage and further information is given in footnotes or endnotes. Place any in-text reference notes see 9. If the block quotation begins with a complete sentence—whether or not this was the first sentence of the paragraph in the source document—the first line may be indented further in order to match the format of subsequent paragraphs in the quotation:.

There have been major initiatives in public administration in the last fifteen years: Many of these had their origins in the government itself. Changes in process have not solved the fundamental problem of balancing expenditures with revenues. As early asthe Auditor General was "deeply concerned that Parliament, and indeed the government," had lost, or was "close to losing, effective control of the public purse.

Material that was already a quotation in the source document or speech should be enclosed in single quotation marks when run into text and in double quotation marks within block double dot dash robots canada. The double dot dash robots canada rules of punctuation apply see 8.

Television news responds to one of our most profound needs: The anthropologist Clifford Geertz has explained that human beings are "symbolizing, conceptualizing, meaning-seeking" animals who wish to "make sense out of their experience, to give it form and order. In the rare event that a further quotation within a quotation occurs, enclose it in double quotation marks:. Omissions of material from a quoted passage, whether run-in or block, should be indicated by ellipsis points three spaced dots positioned on the line and separated by one space from the preceding text or from any punctuation marks that follow it.

There is an alternative format. Double dot dash robots canada use of ellipsis points can vary, depending on whether they indicate an omission in the middle of a sentence, at the beginning or at the end. Use other punctuation marks together with ellipsis points only if they are essential for clarity:. Interviews, often disparaged for their judgmental subjectivity, have been more successful than alternative selection methods. According to Optimum"Interviews.

Note that the comma after Interviews has been dropped 2 and that the word itself begins with a capital I because the quotation, even with the omission, is still a complete sentence. To represent omission of the beginning of a sentence, use three dots followed by a space. If, in a quoted passage, one or more preceding sentences have been left out, use four dots—a period immediately following the preceding word and then three spaced dots:.

The Canadian committee system is much less effective than it could be because of the high rate of double dot dash robots canada and turnover permitted. Much of the problem with the Canadian committee system is that membership turnover is so high that few committees ever develop the continuity, expertise and mutual trust that make a committee effective. A change of attitudes and habits is required and we suggest a new parliamentary convention that committee membership be stable.

We suggest a new parliamentary convention that committee membership be stable. The four dots in this case represent omission of a whole sentence and the beginning of the next. Note that the first letter after the ellipsis is capitalized, even though it does not begin a double dot dash robots canada sentence in the original. In legal writing, indicate any such change by enclosing the capitalized letter in square brackets.

To represent omission of the last part of a quoted sentence, use four dots, but this time the ellipsis points come first, followed by a period to indicate the end of the sentence:. A change of attitudes and habits is required. Ellipsis points can also indicate that a sentence has been interrupted or deliberately left incomplete:. If the next paragraph in the quotation begins with a sentence that does not open a paragraph in the original, it should be preceded by three ellipsis points after the usual indentation.

The same rules of omission as for prose apply to poetry quoted in run-in format. While every quotation must be scrupulously exact, you may wish to provide the reader with information to clarify items in the quotation. For example, you may feel it advisable to indicate to whom the possessive adjective refers in the following:.

If you need to indicate an error in the original, such as a misspelling, insert the Latin word sicitalicized and enclosed in brackets, immediately after the word concerned. The addition of [ sic ] assures the reader of the accuracy of the quotation. When used in this way, [ sic ] should not be followed by a period or an exclamation mark. Avoid implicit comments on peculiarities of form or content by means of an exclamation mark or question mark enclosed in parentheses.

If you wish to draw attention to specific parts of a quotation, underline or italicize them. The reader must be informed in a footnote, or in parentheses or brackets immediately following the quotation, by means of a phrase such as Italics mineUnderlining mine or My emphasisthat the emphasis was not in the original.

Usually these words are preceded by terms such as meansmarkedspecifiedasreferred to asthe wordthe phraseentitled and designated. Double dot dash robots canada writers prefer to place words referred to as such in italics or to underline them rather than to use quotation marks, but consistency in form is the golden rule see 6.

Words being defined, French terms and foreign words are set in italics, and their definition or translation double dot dash robots canada placed in quotation marks:. Vernacular terms used for effect double dot dash robots canada administrative documents and reports are treated in the same way.

However, the enclosure of supposed slang or colloquial words in quotation marks is often unnecessary. First, ascertain whether the term is now part of the standard language. If it is, quotation marks are not required. This practice is often unnecessary, however, in an era when the educated lay reader has some knowledge of modern science and engineering.

Depending on the target readership, technical terms may not need special treatment. Here again, it is often possible to avoid quotation marks by using the preceding text to prepare the reader for the irony.

Quotation marks should enclose the titles of the following when those titles are presented within the body of the text, in footnotes and in bibliographies:. When including a quotation as opposed to individual words or phrases from French or foreign-language documents in your text, do not use italics.

The material can be quoted as it stands, without a translation, as long as the Roman alphabet is used, the intended reader has sufficient knowledge of the source language and the context is explicit enough for the quotation to be understood. If you do provide a translation, however, you must enclose it in quotation marks. There are several ways to proceed.

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It is capable of voice interaction, music playback, making to-do lists, setting alarms, streaming podcasts, playing audiobooks, and providing weather, traffic, sports, and other real-time information, such as news. Users can extend the Alexa capabilities by installing "skills" additional functionality developed by third-party vendors, in other settings more commonly called apps such as weather programs and audio features.

Most devices with Alexa allow users to activate the device using a wake-word such as Echo ; other devices such as the Amazon mobile app on iOS or Android require the user to push a button to activate Alexa's listening mode. Currently, interaction and communication with Alexa are only available in English, German and Japanese.

In November , Alexa became available in the Canadian market in English only. As of September , Amazon had more than 5, employees working on Alexa and related products. In November , Amazon announced Alexa alongside the Echo. The Original Series and Star Trek: The name Alexa was chosen due to the fact that it has a hard consonant with the X and therefore could be recognized with higher precision.

The name is also claimed to be reminiscent of the Library of Alexandria , which is also used by Amazon Alexa Internet for the same reason. In January , the first Alexa Conference took place in Nashville, Tennessee, an independent gathering of the worldwide community of Alexa developers and enthusiasts.

At the Amazon Web Services Re: Invent conference in Las Vegas, Amazon announced Alexa for Business and the ability for app developers to have paid add-ons to their skills. The app can be used by owners of Alexa-enabled devices to install skills, control music, manage alarms, and view shopping lists.

It also allows users to review the recognized text on the app screen and to send feedback to Amazon concerning whether the recognition was good or bad. A web interface is also available to set up compatible devices e. Alexa can manage voice-controlled alarms, timers, and shopping and to-do lists, and can access Wikipedia articles. As of November , the Alexa Appstore had over 5, functions "skills" available for users to download, [18] up from 1, functions in June This functionality was said to come later in ; [20] although as of April , is still not available.

In March , Amazon rolled out a new "Brief Mode," wherein Alexa would begin responding with a beep sound rather than saying, "Okay," to confirm receipt of a command. Alexa supports a multitude of subscription-based and free streaming services on Amazon devices.

These streaming services include: However, some of these music services are not available on other Alexa-enabled products that are manufactured by companies external of its services. This unavailability also includes Amazon's own Fire TV devices or tablets. Alexa is able to stream media and music directly. To do this, Alexa's device should be linked to the Amazon account, which enables access to one's Amazon Music library, in addition to any audiobooks available in one's Audible library.

Amazon Prime members have an additional ability to access stations, playlists, and over two million songs free of charge. Amazon Music Unlimited subscribers also have access to a list of millions of songs. This can be done by uploading one's collection to My Music on Amazon from a computer.

Up to songs can be uploaded free of charge. Once this is done, Alexa can play this music and control playback through voice command options. Alexa allows the user to hear updates on supported sports teams. A way to do this is by adding the sports team to the list created under Alexa's Sports Update app section.

The user is able to hear updates on up to 15 supported teams: There are a number of ways messages can be sent from Alexa's application. Alexa is able to deliver messages to a recipient's Alexa application, as well as to all of their Echo devices that are both supported and associated with their Amazon account. Alexa is able to send typed messages only from Alexa's app. If one sends a message from an associated Echo device, it will be sent as a voice message.

Alexa cannot send attachments such as videos and photos. For households with more than one member, one's Alexa contacts are pooled across all of the devices that are registered to its associated account. However, within Alexa's app one is only able to start conversations with its Alexa contacts. These messages can be heard by anyone with access in the household. This messaging feature does not yet contain a password protection or associated PIN. Anyone who has access to one's cell phone number is able to use this feature to contact them through their supported Alexa app or Echo device.

The feature to block alerts for messages and calls is available temporarily by utilizing the Do Not Disturb feature. Alexa for Business is a paid subscription service allowing companies to use Alexa to join conference calls, schedule meeting rooms, and custom skills designed by 3rd-party vendors.

Amazon allows developers to build and publish skills for Alexa using the Alexa Skills Kit. Users can enable these skills using the Alexa app. A "Smart Home Skill API" is available, meant to be used by hardware manufacturers to allow users to control smart home devices.

In April , Amazon launched Blueprints, a tool for individuals to build skills for their personal use. Amazon allows device manufacturers to integrate Alexa voice capabilities into their own connected products by using the Alexa Voice Service AVS , a cloud-based service that provides APIs to interface with Alexa. There are no fees for companies looking to integrate Alexa into their products by using AVS.

The voice of Amazon Alexa is generated by a long short-term memory artificial neural network. On November 30, Amazon announced that they will make the speech recognition and natural language processing technology behind Alexa available for developers under the name of Amazon Lex. This new service would allow developers to create their own chatbots that can interact in a conversational manner, similar to Alexa.

Along with the connection to various Amazon services, the initial version will provide connectivity to Facebook Messenger , with Slack and Twilio integration to follow. There are concerns about the access Amazon has to private conversations in the home and other non-verbal indications that can identify who is present in the home with non-stop audio pick-up from Alexa-enabled devices. The device is technically capable of streaming voice recordings at all times, and in fact will always be listening to detect if a user has uttered the wake word unless muted.

Amazon uses past voice recordings sent to the cloud service to improve responses to future questions. Users can delete voice recordings that are associated with their account. To delete these recordings, the user can visit the History tab in the Alexa app or contact Amazon customer service. Alexa uses an address stored in the companion app when it needs a location. Similarly, Alexa uses the user's location for mapping-related requests. Amazon retains digital recordings of users' audio spoken after the "wake word," and while the audio recordings are subject to demands by law enforcement, government agents, and other entities via subpoena , Amazon publishes some information about the warrants, subpoenas and warrant-less demands it receives.

In , Too Many T's , a hip hop group from London received international media attention by being the first artists to feature Amazon Alexa as rapper and singer. As of February , Alexa is available in 38 countries.

In September , a university student competition called the Alexa Prize was announced for November of that year. The process started with team selection in The University of Washington student team was awarded first place for the prize. By specifically targeting developers, device-makers and innovative companies of all sizes, Amazon aims at making digital voice assistants more powerful for its users.

The final selection of companies originates from the customer perspective and works backwards, specific elements that are considered for potential investments are: Besides financial support, Amazon provides business and technology expertise, help for bringing products to the market, aid for hard- and software development as well as enhanced marketing support on proprietary Amazon platforms.

The list of funded business includes in alphabetical order: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the subsidiary company of Amazon, see Alexa Internet. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. United States , and right to privacy. Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 2 September The New York Times.

Retrieved 12 July Focusing on cadence and an accent that would suggest 'smart, humble, helpful,' the team tested voices that a diverse population would respond to.

Reid said, but why end there? Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 27 February Puget Sound Business Journal. What does Amazon Echo have to do with shopping? Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 5 August Microsoft and Amazon's first-of-its-kind collaboration". Retrieved 30 August