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The dark web is the World Wide Web content that exists on darknets , overlay networks that use the Internet but require specific software, configurations or authorization to access.
The darknets which constitute the dark web include small, friend-to-friend peer-to-peer networks, as well as large, popular networks like Tor , Freenet , and I2P , operated by public organizations and individuals. Users of the dark web refer to the regular web as Clearnet due to its unencrypted nature. The dark web has often been confused with the deep web , which refer to the parts of the web not indexed searchable by search engines.
This confusion dates back to at least The darknet encryption technology routes users' data through a large number of intermediate servers, which protects the users' identity and guarantees anonymity. The transmitted information can be decrypted only by a subsequent node in the scheme, which leads to the exit node. The complicated system makes it almost impossible to reproduce the node path and decrypt the information layer by layer. Thus, communication between darknet users is highly encrypted allowing users to talk, blog, and share files confidentially.
The darknet is also used for illegal activity such as illegal trade, forums, and media exchange for pedophiles and terrorists.
ProPublica , for example, launched a new version of its website available exclusively to Tor users. A December study by Gareth Owen from the University of Portsmouth found that the most commonly hosted type of content on Tor was child pornography , followed by black markets , while the individual sites with the highest traffic were dedicated to botnet operations see attached metric.
In July , Roger Dingledine , one of the three founders of the Tor Project, said that Facebook is the biggest hidden service. A more recent February study from researchers at King's College London gives the following breakdown of content by an alternative category set, highlighting the illicit use of.
Botnets are often structured with their command and control servers based on a censorship-resistant hidden service, creating a large amount of bot-related traffic. Bitcoin services such as tumblers are often available on Tor , and some — such as Grams — offer darknet market integration. A common approach was to use a digital currency exchanger service which converted Bitcoin into an online game currency such as gold coins in World of Warcraft that will later be converted back into money.
Commercial darknet markets , which mediate transactions for illegal drugs  and other goods, attracted significant media coverage starting with the popularity of Silk Road and Diabolus Market  and its subsequent seizure by legal authorities.
One such study was performed on Evolution, one of the most popular crypto-markets active from January to March Many hackers sell their services either individually or as a part of groups. There are numerous carding forums , PayPal and Bitcoins Trading websites as well as fraud and counterfeiting services. There are reports of crowdfunded assassinations and hitmen for hire,   however, these are believed to be exclusively scams. There is an urban legend that one can find live murder on the dark web.
The term " Red Room " has been coined based on the Japanese animation and urban legend of the same name. However, the evidence points toward all reported instances being hoaxes.
On June 25, , a creepy indie game Sad Satan was reviewed by Youtubers Obscure Horror Corner which they claimed to have found via the dark web. Various inconsistencies in the channel's reporting cast doubt on the reported version of events. Phishing via cloned websites and other scam sites are numerous,   with darknet markets often advertised with fraudulent URLs.
Puzzles such as Cicada and successors will sometimes use hidden services in order to more anonymously provide clues, often increasing speculation as to the identity of their creators. There is regular law enforcement action against sites distributing child pornography   — often via compromising the site by distributing malware to the users. There exists within the Dark Web emerging social media platforms similar to those on the World Wide Web. Facebook and other traditional social media platforms have begun to make Dark Web versions of their websites to address problems associated with the traditional platforms and to continue their service in all areas of the World Wide Web.
Although much of the dark web is innocuous, some prosecutors and government agencies, among others, are concerned that it is a haven for criminal activity.
The Hidden Wiki and its mirrors and forks hold some of the largest directories of content at any given time. Popular sources of dark web. In March the Congressional Research Service released an extensive report on the dark web, noting the changing dynamic of how information is accessed and presented on it; characterized by the unknown, it is of increasing interest to researchers, law enforcement, and policymakers.
In August , according to reportage, cybersecurity firms which specialize in monitoring and researching the dark web on behalf of banks and retailers routinely share their findings with the FBI and with other law enforcement agencies "when possible and necessary" regarding illegal content.
The Russian-speaking underground offering a crime-as-a-service model is regarded as being particularly robust. Many individual journalists , alternative news organizations , and educators or researchers are influential in their writing and speaking of the Darknet, and making its use clear to the general public. In his book, The Dark Net ,  Barlett depicts the world of the Darknet and its implications for human behavior in different context. For example, the book opens with the story of a young girl who seeks positive feedback to build her self-esteem by appearing naked online.
She is eventually traced on social media sites where her friends and family were inundated with naked pictures of her. This story highlights the variety of human interactions the Darknet allows for, but also reminds the reader how participation in a overlay network like the Darknet is rarely in complete separation from the larger Web.
Bartlett's main objective is an exploration of the Darknet and its implication for society. He explores different sub-cultures , some with positive implications for society and some with negative. He points out the familiarity of webpage design similar to consumer sites used in the larger commercial Web.
Bartlett then presents examples of how operating in an uncertain, high-risk market like those in the Darknet actually breeds innovation that he believes can be applied to all markets in the future. As he points out, because vendors are always thinking of new ways to get around and protect themselves, the Darknet has become more decentralized, more customer friendly, harder to censor, and more innovative.
As our societies are increasingly searching for more ways to retain privacy online, such changes as those occurring in the Darknet are not only innovative, but could be beneficial to commercial online websites and markets. The article discusses the rise of the Dark Net and mentions that the stakes have become high in a lawless digital wilderness. It mentions that vulnerability is a weakness in a network's defenses. Other topics include the e-commerce versions of conventional black markets, cyberweaponry from TheRealDeal, and role of operations security.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 May This article is about darknet websites. For the part of the Internet not accessible by traditional web search engines, see deep web. Cryptography portal Freedom of speech portal Information technology portal Internet portal.
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