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Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who developed bitcoin , authored the bitcoin white paper, and created and deployed bitcoin's original reference implementation. They were active in the development of bitcoin up until December In October , Nakamoto published a paper   on the cryptography mailing list at metzdowd. It was titled "Bitcoin: In January , Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency , called bitcoins.
Nakamoto claimed that work on the writing of the code began in The implemented solution enabled specialized codes and data fields from the start through the use of a predicative script. Nakamoto created a website with the domain name bitcoin. Around this time, he handed over control of the source code repository and network alert key to Gavin Andresen ,  transferred several related domains to various prominent members of the bitcoin community, and stopped his involvement in the project.
Until shortly before his absence and handover, Nakamoto made all modifications to the source code himself. On 3 January , the bitcoin network came into existence with Satoshi Nakamoto mining the genesis block of bitcoin block number 0 , which had a reward of 50 bitcoins. The text refers to a headline in The Times published on 3 January This block is unlike all other blocks in that it doesn't have a previous block to reference. Timestamps for subsequent blocks indicate that Nakamoto did not try to mine all the early blocks solely for himself.
As initially the sole and subsequently the predominant miner, Nakamoto was awarded bitcoin at genesis and for 10 days afterwards. Nakamoto has not disclosed any personal information when discussing technical matters. On his P2P Foundation profile as of , Nakamoto claimed to be a year-old male who lived in Japan ,  but some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his use of perfect English and his bitcoin software not being documented or labelled in Japanese. Occasional British English spelling and terminology such as the phrase "bloody hard" in both source code comments and forum postings led to speculation that Nakamoto, or at least one individual in the consortium claiming to be him, was of Commonwealth origin.
Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto's bitcoin forum posts more than ; the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.
This was between 2 p. Japanese time , suggesting an unusual sleep pattern for someone presumably living in Japan. As this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time. This is an earlier draft than the final draft on bitcoin. Gavin Andresen has said of Nakamoto's code: There is still doubt about the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto.
In December , a blogger named Skye Grey linked Nick Szabo to the bitcoin whitepaper using a stylometric analysis. Detailed research by financial author Dominic Frisby provides much circumstantial evidence but, as he admits, no proof that Satoshi is Szabo.
In a July email to Frisby, he said: I'm afraid you got it wrong doxing me as Satoshi, but I'm used to it'. Besides his name, Goodman pointed to a number of facts that circumstantially suggested he was the bitcoin inventor. Nakamoto was laid off twice in the early s and turned libertarian , according to his daughter, and encouraged her to start her own business "not under the government's thumb.
It's been turned over to other people. They are in charge of it now. I no longer have any connection. Hal Finney 4 May — 28 August was a pre-bitcoin cryptographic pioneer and the first person other than Nakamoto himself to use the software, file bug reports, and make improvements.
However, after meeting Finney, seeing the emails between him and Nakamoto and his bitcoin wallet's history including the very first bitcoin transaction from Nakamoto to him, which he forgot to pay back and hearing his denial, Greenberg concluded that Finney was telling the truth.
On 8 December , Wired wrote that Craig Steven Wright , an Australian academic, "either invented bitcoin or is a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did".
The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence obtained by a hacker who supposedly broke into Wright's email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto was a joint pseudonym for Craig Steven Wright and computer forensics analyst David Kleiman , who died in His business premises in Ryde, New South Wales were also searched by police. The Australian Federal Police stated they conducted searches to assist the Australian Taxation Office and that "This matter is unrelated to recent media reporting regarding the digital currency bitcoin.
In articles released on the same day, journalists from the BBC and The Economist stated that they saw Wright signing a message using the private key associated with the first bitcoin transaction. Some people will believe, some people won't, and to tell you the truth, I don't really care. I didn't decide [to reveal my identity now]. People decided this matter for me. And they're making life difficult not for me but my friends, my family, my staff. They want to be private. They don't want all of this to affect them.
And I don't want any of them to be impacted by this. None of it's true. There are lots of stories out there that have been made up. And I don't like it hurting those people I care about. So I am going to do this thing only once.
I am going to come in front of a camera once. And I will never, ever, be on the camera ever again for any TV station, or any media, ever. Wright's claim was supported by Jon Matonis former director of the Bitcoin Foundation and bitcoin developer Gavin Andresen , both of whom met Wright and witnessed a similar signing demonstration. However, bitcoin developer Peter Todd said that Wright's blog post, which appeared to contain cryptographic proof, actually contained nothing of the sort.
On 4 May , Wright made another post on his blog intimating his intentions to publish "a series of pieces that will lay the foundations for this extraordinary claim". I believed that I could put the years of anonymity and hiding behind me.
But, as the events of this week unfolded and I prepared to publish the proof of access to the earliest keys, I broke. I do not have the courage. On Thursday 5 May shortly before closing his blog, Wright sent around an email link to a news story from an impostor site resembling SiliconAngle saying "Craig Wright faces criminal charges and serious jail time in UK". Wright stated that "I am the source of terrorist funds as bitcoin creator or I am a fraud to the world. At least a fraud is able to see his family.
There is nothing I can do. Three True Stories" in which O'Hagan spends several weeks with Wright at the request of Wright's public relations team; which, as revealed in the book, was set up as a result of a business deal between Wright and various individuals including Calvin Ayre after bitcoin was created. All of those involved in the described business deal seemed to agree that they wanted a significant event in human history to be documented by a writer with complete impartiality and freedom to investigate.
O'Hagan was with Wright during the time of his various media interviews. O'Hagan also interviews Wright's wife, colleagues and many of the other people involved in his claims. Further, O'Hagan suggests that Wright provided an invalid private key because he was legally unable to provide the valid one as a result of legal obligations agreed as part of a Seychelles trust deal previously reached.
O'Hagan's book also corroborates the suggestion that both Wright and David Kleiman were the identies of the moniker "Satoshi Nakamoto". He had told the BBC that he had not wanted to come out into the spotlight but needed to dispel damaging rumours affecting his family, friends and colleagues.
But O'Hagan shows us something rather different - a man under intense pressure from business associates who stood to profit from him if he could be shown to be Nakamoto.
This is in reference to O'Hagan's firsthand account, which describes business associates as being furious when they learned that Wright had provided invalid proof despite showing them valid proof privately and for his failure to disclose the details of the Seychelles Trust deal which meant that he could neither provide said proof publicly or yet gain access to the bitcoin attributed to Nakamoto. Cellan-Jones concludes his article by expressing doubts about Wright but admits "It seems very likely he was involved, perhaps as part of a team that included Dave Kleiman and Hal Finney, the recipient of the first transaction with the currency.
Ian Grigg, who is credited with inventing triple entry accounting  describes the events as follows :. Firstly, Satoshi Nakamoto is not one human being. It is or was a team. Craig Wright named one person in his recent communications, being the late Dave Kleinman. Craig did not name others, nor should I. While he was the quintessential genius who had the original idea for Bitcoin and wrote the lion's share of the code, Craig could not have done it alone.
Satoshi Nakamoto was a team effort. New Liberty Dollar issuer Joseph VaughnPerling says he met Wright at a conference in Amsterdam three years before publication of the bitcoin white paper and that Wright introduced himself as Satoshi Nakamoto at that time.
In a article in The New Yorker , Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr. Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear,  then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin and now a post-doctoral student at Georgetown University.
All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg. The late Dave Kleiman has been also named as a possible candidate, and Craig Wright claimed an association with him as well. Trammell, a Texas-based security researcher, was suggested as Nakamoto, but he publicly denied it.
The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions,  but later retracted their claim. Some have considered that Nakamoto might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky , a security researcher who read the bitcoin code,  said that Nakamoto could either be a "team of people" or a "genius";  Laszlo Hanyecz, a former Bitcoin Core developer who had emailed Nakamoto, had the feeling the code was too well designed for one person.
A article  published by a former SpaceX intern espoused the possibility of SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk being the real Satoshi, based on Musk's technical expertise with financial software and history of publishing whitepapers. However, in a tweet on November 28th, Musk denied the claim.
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