## Tiny microrobots team up and move full-size car

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In many cases, the information relates to measurable variables such as elapsed time or total rainfall or accumulated electrical charge for which the hourglass, raingauge, and capacitor, respectively, are suitable representation devices. But what about abstract information, such as quantities in mathematics? For example, we can assign an equivalence between mathematical value and electrical charge. The extent to which we can operate on that electrical charge via the capacitor and our measuring instruments is the degreee to which we can perform analogous mathematical calculations.

There are problems, however, with relating mathematics to storable parameters on physical devices. Two of the more important ones are 1 measuring instruments are rarely more accurate than three decimal digits--so mathematics carried out through these devices would have intrinsic limited accuracy; 2 there is typically unrecoverable loss of information--a capacitor could leak away part of its charge, i.

But there is a solution to these problems: Here one uses devices whose variations are limited to discrete states--typically two, e. Then, by representing mathematical quantities in a number system having only two digits--a binary number system--any value can be represented with arbitrary accuracy by linking together a sequence of two-state devices and setting the appropriate state for each device.

Information integrity in this discrete representation is better than that of analog representation because here information loss requires an arbitrary change of state of a device, not a drift in value.

That is much less likely, and there are ways to correct for it. Computers are developed to store and mathematically manipulate quantitative information. Earlier computers were analog--usually electrical or mechanical. Circuits and mechanisms were built to represent fixed mathematical problems with results appearing in the form of a final voltage or a rotation angle of a gear.

The electrical and mechanical equivalents of addition, multiplication, integration, and differentiation were incorporated into these computers. Complex problems could be solved, albeit with the accuracy problems mentioned above.

Then the digital computer emerged. Here the electrical and mechanical analogies for mathematical operations are replaced by the digital manipulation of 1's and 0's--the two possible states of binary devices storing information. How does one carry out mathematics with binary devices? That is the topic of this exercise. The objective is to devise and to piece together a series of binary logic elements to effect an ultimate mathematical operation such as addition, or subtraction, or multiplication.

It is necessary and sufficient to consider logic elements for which there are two binary inputs and one binary output. We consider three logic elements from which a robot bit mechanical device that can perform binary logic may be constructed: When you link to the circuit builder you will be asked to specify the number of inputs and outputs--that will be determined, of course, by the problem.

You will then be presented with the circuit display having the specified number of inputs and outputs. To build your circuit, drag logic components into the circuit area. Inputs circles may be connected to outputs squares by clicking first on one, then dragging to the other and releasing the mouse button.

A single output square may be connected to several inputs circlesbut only one output may be connected to any input. Once your circuit is completed you can choose either single input or all inputs. With the single input option, you can specify a particular bit configuration of inputs. Once these inputs are specified, the state 1 or 0 of each logic line will be displayed. This will give you an opportunity to find errors in your circuit. With the "all possible a robot bit mechanical device that can perform option, outputs for all possible inputs will be presented.

This should be your final confirmation that your circuit operates correctly. Confirm that each of the elementary circuits behaves as advertised. These will all be two-input and one output circuits except for NOT, which will be one input and one output. Do the same to emulate a NOT gate. Do the same to emulate an OR gate.

If a robot bit mechanical device that can perform is doable, it means that all binary logic circuitry can a robot bit mechanical device that can perform be generated from the single logic element NAND.

You don't have to use all three circuit elements. Create a two-input "adder" with two outputs: One of the more interesting public works problems is the "Superbowl" problem. At the beginning of halftime during the Superbowl, 35 million toilets are flushed almost simultaneously. The resulting loss of water pressure wreaks havoc on many municipal water systems. Here you will solve the problem for a "three toilet" system.

Devise a logic circuit whose "1" inputs represent "flushes" and whose "1" outputs represent opened water-feed valves. If no more than one toilet is flushed, then that toilet's water valve opens, the others remaining closed.

If more than one toilet is flushed, then a robot bit mechanical device that can perform the water valves remain closed. You are designing a robot to move toward a light source. Three photosensors S LS Cand S R are mounted at the front of the robot pointing 45 o to the left, straight ahead, and 45 o to a robot bit mechanical device that can perform right, respectively.

Two wheels W L and W R are powered depending on the output of the sensors. If S L detects light, the robot is pointing too far to the right, and the right wheel W R must be powered up to turn the robot to the left. The opposite is necessary if S R receives light. If only the forward-pointing sensor S C is lit, then both wheels W L and W R should be powered to propel the robot forward.

If one treats the sensors as having binary outputs, i. Create such a logic circuit using only NAND gates, and using the least number of these. Your task is to design a printed circuit board that implements the robot circuit you produced in problem 8. Using as many CMOS chips as necessary, and taking into consideration which pins constitute inputs and outputs, create the circuit by connecting the appropriate pins. But now, try to route the connections so that the "wires" don't cross one another.

This is a typical problem in printed circuit design. The objective is to "etch" the circuit onto a single layer of a copper-coated circuit board which contains pin holes to accommodate the chips. Just sketch out the connections between the chip s. Computers Computers are developed to store and mathematically manipulate quantitative information.

Binary Logic The objective is to devise and to piece together a series of binary logic elements to effect an ultimate mathematical operation such as addition, or subtraction, or multiplication.

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A robot is a mechanical device that can be programmed to follow a set of instructions. Robots have processing units, sensors to help them perceive things in the surrounding environment, and motors and actuators so that they can move. Robots may also have the added programmable functionality of lights, sounds or speech recognition. Educational robotics is a broad term that refers to a collection of activities, programs, physical platforms and educational resources.

In addition, behind the physical elements lies a pedagogical philosophy that matches the new Digital Technologies curriculum. With the proliferation of robotic devices in the human world, this article raises the question: It also raises associated ethical considerations.

It provides professional learning for teachers. The report highlights the emerging emphasis on 'deep learning approaches', including project-based learning and collaborative learning. This discussion paper provides an opportunity for the community to join a conversation about coding and robotics skills. Students follow and describe a series of steps to program a floor robot. They plan a route to program a robot to follow a path and write a sequence of steps algorithm.

This is a collection of interactive activity ideas for the Dash and Dot robot toys for young computer programming learners. In this activity students give verbal instructions to a person role-playing a robot as an introduction to programing language. The rolling spider is a programmable mini-drone, designed to teach students different aspects of programming and robotics. Sphero is a programmable robotic ball, designed to teach students different aspects of programming and robotics.

Wink is an Arduino-based robot that enables students to transition from graphical programming to more powerful text code languages. This is a programmable bee robot that completes a sequence of directional steps to produce a desired outcome. Lego Mindstorms is a set of building blocks and programmable components that students can build into various robots, designed to teach students different aspects of programming and robotics. Ollie is a two-wheel programmable robotic ball, designed to teach students different aspects of programming and robotics.

Dot and Dash robots can be programmed by iOS and Android devices to fulfil designed behaviours, including moving and singing. This interactive game helps students develop early programming skills by creating simple sequences of instructions based on logic.

This programming puzzle app, is available for use on multiple devices, teaching students coding concepts as they guide a robot to solve problems and light up tiles. Thomas and Pink are two humanoid robots that are making programming and robotics exciting and intellectually stimulating learning frontiers for students in Independent schools in South Australia. Students get their team together to design, build, and program a robot. They then drive it to compete against robots created by other teams.

Students work as a team to program a robot to compete against others in a game of soccer, a dance routine, or a rescue mission.

In this competition students develop a technology project of their choice and then present it to a panel of judges. Projects are submitted in two categories: Skip to main content. Home Teachers Topics Robotics. The benefits of teaching robotics in schools include: Real-world examples Robots replacing guides in art galleries The robots are coming for your job!: Why digital literacy is so important for the jobs of the future.

What is a robot? Coding counts This discussion paper provides an opportunity for the community to join a conversation about coding and robotics skills. Robotics in the Classroom This discussion paper provides an opportunity for the community to join a conversation about coding and robotics skills. Lesson ideas How to teach it.

Buzzing with Bee-Bots Students follow and describe a series of steps to program a floor robot. Wonder workshop This is a collection of interactive activity ideas for the Dash and Dot robot toys for young computer programming learners. Harold the robot In this activity students give verbal instructions to a person role-playing a robot as an introduction to programing language. Sphero Sphero is a programmable robotic ball, designed to teach students different aspects of programming and robotics.

Raspberry Pi The Raspberry Pi is a small, low-cost computer designed for schools. Winkâ€”Learn to code with this entry level robot Wink is an Arduino-based robot that enables students to transition from graphical programming to more powerful text code languages.

Ozobot Ozobot is a tiny robot that uses a colour-code language to navigate game-based activities. Bee-Bot This is a programmable bee robot that completes a sequence of directional steps to produce a desired outcome. Lego Mindstorms Lego Mindstorms is a set of building blocks and programmable components that students can build into various robots, designed to teach students different aspects of programming and robotics. Pro-Bot Pro-Bot is a programmable turtle robot, cleverly disguised as a race car.

Ollie Ollie is a two-wheel programmable robotic ball, designed to teach students different aspects of programming and robotics. Dot and Dash Robots Dot and Dash robots can be programmed by iOS and Android devices to fulfil designed behaviours, including moving and singing.

Bot Logic This interactive game helps students develop early programming skills by creating simple sequences of instructions based on logic. Lightbot This programming puzzle app, is available for use on multiple devices, teaching students coding concepts as they guide a robot to solve problems and light up tiles. Ravenswood School for Girls 'Now we are sort of testing the limits'.

First Robotics Competition Students get their team together to design, build, and program a robot. RoboCup Junior Australia Students work as a team to program a robot to compete against others in a game of soccer, a dance routine, or a rescue mission. RoboGals These are robotics competitions, events and workshops for girls.

Young ICT Explorers In this competition students develop a technology project of their choice and then present it to a panel of judges.

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